Modeling of wind driven waves and estimation of wave energy in Chabahar Bay


1 Marine Science Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Iran

2 Marine Science Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran

4 Physical Oceanography Department, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Sea waves are one of the main characteristics of water areas in the world, which are mainly produced by wind. Waves are the main boundary condition in the dynamic loading and hydraulic calculations of coastal structures. Numerical models are being developed to bring the sea and ocean conditions closer to the real conditions. In this research, the SW model from MIKE21 software is used to simulate wind waves in the Chabahar Bay and the energy extracted from these waves is estimated. The SW model simulates the growth, transmission and decay of wind waves in offshore and coastal areas. Chabahar Bay is a semi-closed and subtropical bay with an average depth of 7.5 m, which is located in the southeast of Iran. The model was implemented for a period of one year (2017) with a spatial resolution of maximum 5 km for offshore regions and less than 500 m in the interior parts of Chabahar Bay. ECMWF model wind data with a time step of 6 hours and a spatial resolution of 0.125 minutes were used. Comparison of model results for hourly averages with measured data shows a correlation coefficient of 0.84 for significant wave height. The annually average and maximum of wave height due to wind in the entrance of Chabahar Bay is 0.82 m and 2.19 m, respectively. The direction of the dominant waves is from south and the largest share of energy is related to waves with a period of around 11. The average of annual extractable power related to wind waves in the southern parts of Chabahar Bay was calculated from the order of 3 kW/m.


  1. Akbarifard, S., Zarei, H., and Zalqi, A., (2017), Hourly and daily forecast of wave height in Chabahar region, Ecology Quarterly, Volume 4, Number 4, pp. 1140-1129.
  2. Nayebi, R., Bakhtiari, M., Sadri-Nasab, M., Shahni-Karamzadeh, N., (2014), Investigation of wind wave changes with the help of MIKE21 software, Bi-Quarterly Journal of Water Science and Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, Fourth Year, No. 10, pp. 49-37.
  3. Esmaili, M., A. Kohnepushi, (2013), Determining the parameters of sea waves in Chabahar region, The first national conference on the development of Makran beaches and maritime authority of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
  4. Mohamad-Mehdizadeh, M., Hassan Tabar, S. H., (2017), The Impact of MIKE21 and SWAN Models on Wind Changes in Wave Characteristics Simulation in the South Caspian Region, Iranian journal of marine technology, Imam Khomeini University of Marine Sciences, Noshahr, Volume 4, Number 1, pp. 85-75.
  5. Boij, N., Haagsma, I., Hothuijsen, L., Kieftenburg, A., Ris, R., Van der Westhuysen, A., Zijlema, M., (2009), User Manual of SWAN, Version 40.72, Delft University of Technology.
  6. Group, T.W., (1988), The WAM model-A third generation ocean wave prediction model, Journal of Physical Oceanography, V. 18, Issue 12, pp.1775-1810.;2 [DOI:10.1175/1520-0485(1988)0182.0.CO;2]
  7. Tolman, H. L., (2014), User manual and system documentation of WAVEWATCH III, Environmental Modeling Center Marine Modeling and Analysis Branch, Technical Note, p. 311.
  8. Dezvare Rasani,R., Mohammadi Kale Sar, P., Haji Tabar, M., (2019), Determination of wind wave characteristics using Wave Watch-III numerical model and comparison of its results with Mike21-SW model, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, V. 18, N. 2.
  9. Salehpour, A., Haji Valiei, F., (2015), Numerical Simulation of Sediment Transfer Pattern in the East Coast of Rigo Port, 17th Marine Industries Conference.
  10. Tavakoli Oskooi, M., Hakimzadeh, H., (2016), Numerical simulation of Anzali port waves using MIKE21 numerical model before and after the development of breakwaters, 20th Marine Industry Conference.
  11. Afsharian, S., M. Sadri-Nasab, Chegini, V., A. Ashtari Larki, (2010), 3D modeling of water circulation in Chabahar Bay, M.Sc. Thesis, Khorramshahr University of Marine Sciences and Technology.
  12. Fazeli, N., Zare, R., (2011), Effect of seasonal monsoons on calanoid copepod in Chabahar bay-Gulf of Oman, Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences, V. 4, pp. 55-62.
  13. Biglari, M., Valipour, M. S., Rahmany, H., (2015), Technical Feasibility Study of Energy Generation from the Tide in Southern Coasts of Iran Using Helical Turbines, Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, V. 5, pp. 39-48.
  14. Soltanpour, M., Dibajnia, M., (2015), Field measurements and 3D numerical modeling of hydrodynamics in Chabahar Bay, International journal of maritime technology, V. 3, pp. 49-60.
  15. Dehbandi, A., Akbari-Beidakhti, A., Ezam, M., Torabi-Azad, M., (2013), Study of Surface Flow Patterns in the North Indian Ocean during the Monsoon Seasons, Master Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran.
  16. Shankar, D., Vinayachandran, P. N., Unnikrishnan, A. S., (2002), The monsoon currents in the north Indian Ocean, Progress in oceanography, V. 52, pp. 63-120. [DOI:10.1016/S0079-6611(02)00024-1]
  17. Shirinmanesh, S., Chegini, V., (2011), Study and evaluation of extractable energy estimation from tidal wave and current in Chabahar Bay, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Volume 10, Number 2, pp. 107-97.
  18. Saket, A., Etemad-Shahirdi, A., (2012), Wave energy potential along the northern coasts of the Gulf of Oman, Iran, Renewable Energy, V. 40, Issue 1, pp. 90-97. [DOI:10.1016/j.renene.2011.09.024]
  19. Abbasi, G., (2012), Investigation and Feasibility Study of Wave Power Extraction in Northern and Southern Waters of Iran, 10th International Conference on Coasts, Ports and Marine Structures (ICOPMAS).
  20. DHI, (2009), MIKE 21 Spectral Waves FM Module, User Guide. DHI, Denmark, 116 p.
  21. Komen, G. J., Janssen, P.A.E.M., Makin, V., Mastenbroek, K., Oost, W., (1994), Review: On the sea state dependence of the Charnock parameter, Journal of Glob Atmos. Ocean System, V. 5, pp. 367-388.
  22. Young, I. R., (1999), Wind Generated ocean waves, V. 2, 1st edition, 287 p.
  23. Abdollahzadeh, Y., Erdik, T., Özger, M., Altunkaynak, A., (2014), Application of MIKE 21 SW for wave hindcasting in Marmara Sea Basin for the year 2012, 11th International Congress on Advances in Civil Engineering- ACE 2014.
  24. Journee, J., Massie, W., (2001), Offshore Hydromechanics, 1st Ed, Delf University of Technology, p. 570.
  25. WAFO group, (2011), A MATLAB Toolbox for Analysis of random waves and loads, Lund University, p. 185.
  26. Shanas, P.R., SanilKumar, V., Hithin, N. K., (2014), Comparison of gridded multi-mission and along-track mono-mission satellite altimetry wave heights with in situ near-shore buoy data, Ocean Engineering, V. 84, pp. 24-35. [DOI:10.1016/j.oceaneng.2014.03.014]