Create a weather routing network in ocean navigation and verify it with a simple cost function

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Assistant Professor, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Imam Khomeini Maritime University, Nowshahr, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Navigation and Nautical operations, Imam Khomeini Maritime University, Nowshahr, Iran

3 - Master's degree in Navigation and Nautical operations, Imam Khomeini Maritime University, Nowshahr, Iran


Due to the need of the maritime community to reduce meteorological calculations on maritime routes, ship weather routing has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, both in the university and in the maritime industry. The problems in this field are finding the optimal route and speed of navigation for a certain voyage, taking into account the environmental conditions of wind and waves. Goals are usually considered to minimize operating costs, fuel consumption, or safety. The main methods used to solve the weather routing problem are the Isochrone method, dynamic programming, calculus of variation, use of routing, and exploration algorithms, while in recent years, artificial intelligence and machine learning applications have also increased. Most of these methods are well established and have not changed significantly over the years, although programs with a combination of these methods have been used. In this research first, the great circle route is calculated for the vessel between the departure and the destination positions, and using the Rhumb line method, the network points around the great circle route are created. Next, it is necessary to number the network points and network connections, and finally, using Dijkstra's algorithm and defining a cost function, the network efficiency is proved. The results and innovations of this research, the use of up-to-date methods in calculating the great circle route and turning points on it, creating minimal connections between network points.


Main Subjects

  1. Mohammadi, A., Zadeghabadi, A., Hoseini arani, A. (2021). Challenges of calculating the vortex point of the great circle in international seafarers training guidelines. Journal of Research on Management of Teaching in Marine Sciences, 8(4), 151-165 (15 pages).
  2. Malakooti, H. (2014). 'Simulation of Cyclone Gonu using the Advanced Hurricane WRF: Sensitivity to Domain Coverage, Nesting, Resolution and Starting Time', Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 13(3), pp. 101-110 (150 pages). doi: 10.22113/jmst.2014.8634.
  3. alimohammadi, M., Malakooti, H., rahbani, M., mohammadi, A. (2020). Investigation of sea surface temperature effects on the simulation of tropical cyclone Gonu. Amphibious Science and Technology, 1(1), 1-12 (12 pages).
  4. Foroutani R, Rahbani M, Pakhirehzan M. (2018). Investigating the Storm Surge Due to Tropical Cyclone Ashobaa in the Coastal Areas of Bushehr and Chabahar. joc. 8 (32) :9-19 (11 pages). 
  5. Sadaghi S M, Golshani A A, Nemati M H. (2021). Numerical Simulation of Kyarr Tropical Cyclone Waves in Makran Coastlines. Joc. 12 (46) :39-50 (12 pages).
  6. Hsieh, T. H., Wang, S., Liu, W., & Zhao, J. (2019). New Formulae for Combined Spherical Triangles. The Journal of Navigation, 72(2), 503-512 (10 pages).
  7. Lin, Y. H., Fang, M. C., & Yeung, R. W. (2013). The optimization of ship weather-routing algorithm based on the composite influence of multi-dynamic elements. Applied Ocean Research, 43, 184-194 (11 pages).
  8. Fang, M. C., & Lin, Y. H. (2015). The optimization of ship weather-routing algorithm based on the composite influence of multi-dynamic elements (II): Optimized routings. Applied Ocean Research, 50, 130-140 (11 pages).
  9. Dupuy, M., d'Ambrosio, C., & Liberti, L. (2021). Optimal paths on the ocean(14 pages).
  10. Padhy, C. P., Sen, D., & Bhaskaran, P. K. (2008). Application of wave model for weather routing of ships in the North Indian Ocean. Natural Hazards, 44(3), 373-385 (13 pages).
  11. Tillig, F., Ringsberg, J. W., Psaraftis, H. N., & Zis, T. (2020). Reduced environmental impact of marine transport through speed reduction and wind assisted propulsion. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 83, 102380 (10 pages).
  12. Kim, M., Hizir, O., Turan, O., Day, S., & Incecik, A. (2017). Estimation of added resistance and ship speed loss in a seaway. Ocean Engineering, 141, 465-476 (12 pages).
  13. Hajivalie, F., & Arabzadeh, A. (2017). A 3D Numerical Study of Cyclone Gonu Waves Impact on Ramin Port. International Journal Of Coastal, Offshore And Environmental Engineering, 2(1), 33-41. doi: 10.18869/acadpub.ijcoe.1.1.33
  14. Pennino, S., Gaglione, S., Innac, A., Piscopo, V., & Scamardella, A. (2020). Development of a new ship adaptive weather routing model based on seakeeping analysis and optimization. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8(4), 270 (10 pages).
  15. Wang, Y., Zhang, X., Lin, S., Qiang, Z., Hao, J., & Qiu, Y. (2022). Analysis on the Development of Wind-assisted Ship Propulsion Technology and Contribution to Emission Reduction. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 966, No. 1, p. 012012). IOP Publishing (10 pages).
  16. Malekpour Golsefidi M, Karimipour F, Sharifi M A. Proposing a Novel Temporal Rout Finding Model for Marine Navigation with Respect to Depth and Weather Condition of Marine Environment. JGST. 2016; 5 (4) :255-268 (14 pages).
  17. Bowditch, N. (2002). National imagery and mapping agency. American practical navigator:" Bowditch". An epitome of navigation. Originally by Nathaniel Bowditch (1773-1838). Arcata (CA, US): Paradise Cay Publications (65 pages).
  18. Eskild, H. (2014). Development of a method for weather routing of ships (Master's thesis, Institutt for marin teknikk) (65 pages).
  19. Bowditch, N. (2017). The American practical navigator: an epitome of navigation (468 pages).
  20. Dijkstra, E. W. (1959). A note on two problems in connexion with graphs. Numerische mathematik, 1(1), 269-271 (3 pages).
  21. Fan, D., & Shi, P. (2010, August). Improvement of Dijkstra's algorithm and its application in route planning. In 2010 seventh international conference on fuzzy systems and knowledge discovery (Vol. 4, pp. 1901-1904). IEEE (5 pages).
  22. Zhu, X., Wang, H., Shen, Z., & Lv, H. (2016, June). Ship weather routing based on modified Dijkstra algorithm. In Proc. of 6th International Conference on Machinery, Materials, Environment, Biotechnology, and Computer (MMEBC 2016), China, Tianjin (pp. 696-699) (468 pages).
  23. Zoljoodi, M. (2019). The Tropical Cyclone Tracks and Formation over the Western Indian Ocean, And Impacts on the Iranian Southern Coasts. International Journal Of Coastal, Offshore And Environmental Engineering, 4(2), 41-46.doi:10.29252/ijcoe.3.2.41.
  24. Pegahfar, N., & Gharaylou, M. (2018). Sensitivity of an Axi-Symmetric Tropical Cyclone Model to Two External Parameters. International Journal Of Coastal, Offshore And Environmental Engineering, 3(3), 41-51. doi: 10.29252/ijcoe.2.3.41.
  25. Wang, H. B., Li, X. G., Li, P. F., Veremey, E. I., & Sotnikova, M. V. (2018). Application of real-coded genetic algorithm in ship weather routing. The Journal of Navigation, 71(4), 989-1010 (12 pages).