Experimental Analysis of the Effect of a Submerged obstacle and Floating Wave Barrier in front of a Rubble Mound Breakwater on Diminishing the Damage Parameter

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Islamic Azad University,Tabriz Branch

2 Department of Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract

The aim of this research was to compare the performance of a submerged obstacle and floating wave barrier in the stability of rubble mound breakwaters based on the damage parameter. The submerged obstacle was attached to the toe, and the floating wave barrier was installed 50 cm from a reshaping breakwater. We carried out tests in a 35 m flume at SCWMRI. Random waves with the JONSWAP spectrum influenced the breakwater. We then analyzed the structure's reshaping using close-range photogrammetric imaging by constructing the DEM and DSM to record the displacement of rocks. Furthermore, we obtained the eroded area and the damage parameter from the integrated model at eight cross-sections at equal distances. We showed that the damage parameter increased by 39.12 and 44.44%, respectively, by increasing the relative wave height from 0.36 to 0.48 and 0.6. Also, the damage parameter increased by 22.94 and 28.26%, respectively, by increasing the relative wave period from 0.6 to 0.8 and 1. In addition, regarding different modes, we obtained the damage parameter in the breakwater without the submerged obstacle and the floating barrier 1.116 under random waves. The damage parameter decreased to 0.701 (i.e., 37.19%) by using the submerged obstacle, while the wave barrier reduced this parameter to 0.735 (i.e., 34.14%); thus, the obstacle has outperformed the wave barrier. Using the obstacle simultaneously with the wave barrier reduced the damage parameter by 51.79%, confirming the highest efficiency and performance among models. Consequently and based on the experiments and findings in this study, this model was suggested for adoption.

Keywords


[1] Khosravi Babadi, M., Golshani, A., Ghanei Ardakani, A. and Karami Matin, A., (2017), Design principles of breakwaters, Marine Industries Organization, p.17-23-42-111.
[2] Ghanbarian, M., (2010), Rubble mound breakwaters (Vol.1: Types of breakwaters, principles, and overview, Khatam al Anbiya Construction Headquarter, p.15-19. (In Persian)
[3] Sayao, O. and Da Silva R. F., (2016), Analysis of rubble mound breakwater damage: Case study of existing breakwater rehabilitation, IX Pinac Copedec Conference.
[4] Lamberti, A., Tomasicchio, G.R. and Guiducci, F., (1994), Reshaping breakwaters in deep and shallow water conditions, Proceeding of 24th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, Kobe, Japan. ASCE. p.1343-1358.
[5] Mousavi, Sh., (2010), Rubble mound breakwaters (Vol.2: Design of rubble mound breakwaters, Khatam al Anbiya Construction Headquarter, p.15-19-93-100-105. (In Persian)
[6] Campos, A., Castillo, C. and Sanchez, R.M., (2020), Damage in rubble mound breakwaters. Part I: Historical review of damage models, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Vol.8(5):317.  
[7] Sayao, O., (1998), On the profile reshaping of berm breakwaters, Coastal structures, Vol.99, p.224-265.
[8] Rao, S. and Pramod, rao, B., (2003), Stability of berm breakwater with reduced armour stone weight, Ocean Engineering, Vol.31, p.1577-1589.
[9] Panagiota, G., Christos, M., and Panayotis, P., (2018), Optimized reliability based upgrading of rubble mound breakwaters in a changing climate, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 6(3):92.
[10] Janardhan, P., Harish, N., Rao, S. and Shirlal, K.G., (2015), Performance of variable selection method for the damage level prediction of reshaped berm breakwater, ICWRCOE 2015. Aquatic Procedia Vol.4, p.302- 307.
[11] Twu, S.W., Liu, C.C. and Hsu, W.H., (2001), Wave damping characteristics of deeply submerged breakwaters, ASCE Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering Vol.127 (2), p.97–105.
[12] Neves, A.C., Veloso Gomes, F.and Taveira Pinto, F., (2007), Analysis of the wave-flow interaction with submerged breakwaters. WIT Transactions on Modelling and Simulation. Vol.46, p.147-154.
[13] Bungin, E.R., (2021), The effect of square submerged breakwater on wave transmission in the coastal area, AC2SET (2020), IOP Conference series: Materials Science and Engineering.
[14] Juhl, J. and Jensen, O. J., (1995), Features of berm breakwaters and practical experience. Proceeding of the International Conference on Coastal and port engineering in developing countries, R.J. Brazil. p.1307-1320.
[15] Tulsi, K., and Phelp, D., (2009), Monitoring and maintenance of breakwaters which protect port entrances, proceeding of the 28th South African transport conference, p.317 – 325.
[16] Smith, D.A.Y., Warner, P.S. and Sorensen, R.M., (1996), Submerged-crest breakwater design, advances in coastal structures and breakwaters, Thomas Telford, London, p.208–219.
[17] Stefanutti Stocks Marine, (2015), Rubble mound breakwater vs. tandem breakwater cost estimation. Cape Town, Stefanutti Stocks Marine.
[18] He, F., Huang, Z. and Law, A.W., (2012), Hydrodynamic performance of a rectangular floating breakwater with and without pneumatic chambers: An experimental study, Ocean Engineering, Vol.51 (1), p.16-27.
[19] Jian Xu, T., Wang, X.R., Guo, W.J., Dong, .H. and Hou, H.M, (2020), Numerical simulation of combined effect of pneumatic breakwater and submerged breakwater on wave damping, Taylor and Francis: Ships and offshore structures.
[20] Qin, H., Mu, L., Tang, W. and Hu, Z., (2019), Numerical study of the interaction between peregrine breather based freak waves and twin-plate breakwater, Journal of Fluids and Structures, Vol.87, p.206-227.
[21] Quiroga, I., Vidal, C., Lara, J., Gonzalez, M. and Sainz, A., (2018), Stability of rubble-mound breakwaters under tsunami first impact and overflow based on laboratory experiments, Coastal Engineering, Vol.135, p.39-54.
[22] Van der Meer, J.W., (1993), Conceptual design of rubble mound breakwaters, Delft Hydraulics, Report No. 483.
[23] Andersen, T.L., (2006). Hydraulic response of rubble mound breakwaters (scale effects-berm breakwaters), University of Alborg, Denmark.
[24] Burcharth, H.F., (1993), Design of breakwaters, Department of Civil Engineering, Alborg University Denmark.
[25] Ataie Ashtiani, B., (2006), Coastal engineering (Coastal hydrodynamics), ACECR, Amirkabir University of Technology Branch, p.214-215-218. (In Persian)
[26] Vafaeipour Sorkhabi R, Naseri A (2015) Experimental investigation of the interaction between vertical flexible seawall and random sea waves. Journal of Advanced Defense Science and Technology 6(3): 155-162. (In Persian)