Determination of Vessel Heading using Magnetic Wake Imaging

Authors

1 Assistant Professor ,Department of Engineering, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Salman Farsi University of Kazerun, Kazerun, Iran

Abstract

The small microwave skin depth of sea water as well as the small penetration depth of laser signal in water impose limitations on the application of SAR and Lidar in sea surveillance systems. On the other hand, vessels travelling at sea bring about hydrodynamic anomalies in the sea water called as wake. These hydrodynamic disturbances can be detected by using some techniques such as airborne radio imaging and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) electromagnetic signal processing. In practice, the motion of conductive sea water anomalies in the natural earth's magnetic field induces ELF magnetic wakes which can be measured via accurate magnetic sensors and detected through signal processing schemes. The physical properties of the hydrodynamic wake as well as those relating to the corresponding magnetic wake are directly related to the vessel parameters such as hull shape, speed and heading. In this work, we firstly derive and formulate the mathematical expressions relating to the aforementioned hydrodynamic and magnetic wakes. By employing derived expressions, a novel detection scheme is proposed based on constructing the 2-dimentional image of the vessel’s magnetic wake through the magnetic signals captured from an array of magnetic sensors, and finally, the relation between the spectral image of the magnetic wake and the vessel heading is studied. We will show that our proposed scheme can detect the existence of a remote vessel as well as its heading from the constructed image with high accuracy, and moreover, it does not have common limitations of existing single-sensor based heading detection schemes.

Keywords


  1. 1- O. Karakuş and A. Achim, (2021), On Solving SAR Imaging Inverse Problems Using Nonconvex Regularization With a Cauchy-Based Penalty, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 59, no. 7, p.5828-5840, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2020.3011631. 2- O. Karakuş, I. Rizaev and A. Achim, (2020), Ship Wake Detection in SAR Images via Sparse Regularization, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 58, no. 3, p.1665-1677, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2019.2947360. 3- K. -m. Kang and D. -j. Kim, (2019), Ship Velocity Estimation From Ship Wakes Detected Using Convolutional Neural Networks, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, vol. 12, no. 11, p. 4379-4388, doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2019.2949006. 4- Grishin, M.Y., Lednev, V.N., Pershin, S.M. et al., (2021), Lidar sensing of ship wakes, Phys. Wave Phen. 25,p.225–230, https://doi.org/10.3103/S1541308X17030104. 5- Alexey F. Bunkin, Vladimir K. Klinkov, Vladislav A. Lukyanchenko, and Sergey M. Pershin, (2011), Ship wake detection by Raman lidar, Appl. Opt. 50, p.86-89. 6- G. Yang, J. Yu, C. Xiao and W. Sun, (2016), Ship wake detection for SAR images with complex backgrounds based on morphological dictionary learning, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), p. 1896-1900, doi: 10.1109/ICASSP.2016.7472006. 7- G. Zilman, A. Zapolski and M. Marom, (2014), On detectability of a ship’s Kelvin wake in simulated SAR images of rough sea surface , IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., vol. 53, no. 2, p.609-619. 8- Yingfei Liu, Jun Zhao, Yan Qin, (2021), A novel technique for ship wake detection from optical images, Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 258. 9- Liu, Yingfei & Deng, Ruru. (2018). Ship Wakes in Optical Images. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. 35. 10.1175/JTECH-D-18-0021.1. 10- M. Gilman, A. Soloviev and H. Graber, (2011), Study of the Far Wake of a Large Ship, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., vol. 28, p.720–733. 11- J. N. Newman, (1977), Marine hydrodynamics, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 12- Kostyukov, A. A., (1968), Theory of Ship Waves and Waves Resistance, Effective Communications Inc., Iowa City. p.241-243. 13- Tuck, E. O., Collins, J. I., and W. H. Wells, (1971), On Ship Wave Patterns and Their Spectra, J Ship Res 15,p11–21. doi: https://doi.org/10.5957/jsr.1971.15.1.11. 14- D. F. Gu and O. M. Phillips,(1988), On narrow V-like ship wakes, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 275, p.301–321. 15- Weaver, J. T., (1965), Magnetic Variations Associated with Ocean Waves and Swell, Journal of Geophysical Research, 70: p.1921–1929. 16- Sanford, T. B.,(1971),Motionally Induced Electric and Magnetic Fields in the Sea, Journal of Geophysical Research, 76: p.3476–3492. 17- D. Madurasinghe,(1994), Induced electromagnetic fields associated with large ship wakes,Wave Motion, 20, p.283–292. 18- D. Madurasinghe, E.O. Tuck,(1994), The induced electromagnetic field associated with submerged moving bodies in an unstratified conducting fluid, IEEE Journal of Ocean Engineering, 19 ,p.193–199. 19- D. Madurasinghe, GR. Haack, (1994), The induced electromagnetic field associated with wakes-signal processing aspects. Proceedings of IGRASS 94, Pasadena, CA, p.2335–2357. 20- Yijin Xie, Huiyao Yu, Yunbin Zhu, Xi Qin, Xing Rong, Chang-Kui Duan, Jiangfeng Du, (2021), A hybrid magnetometer towards femtotesla sensitivity under ambient conditions, Science Bulletin, Volume 66, Issue 2, P.127-132. 21- Deans, Cameron & Marmugi, Luca & Renzoni, Ferruccio. (2018), Sub-picotesla widely tunable atomic magnetometer operating at room-temperature in unshielded environments, Review of Scientific Instruments. 89. 083111. 10.1063/1.5026769. 22- N. Zou and A. Nehorai, (2000), Detection of ship wakes using an airborne magnetic transducer, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 38, no. 1, p.532-539, doi: 10.1109/36.823948. 23- O. Yaakobi, G. Zilman, T. Miloh, (2011), Detection of the electromagnetic field induced by the wake of a ship moving in a moderate sea state of finite depth,J. Engrg. Math. 70,p.17–27. 24- XiangmingGuo, Dongliang Zhao, Zhongqing Cao,(2016), Detection of the Magnetic Field Induced by the Wake of a Moving Submerged Body Using Simple Models, American Journal of Electromagnetics and Applications. Vol. 4, No. 2, p.20-25. doi: 10.11648/j.ajea.20160402.12. 25-Robert, P., (1988). Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Materials, Artech House. 26- Schon, J.H., (1996), Physical properties of rocks: fundamentals and principles of petrophysics Calculated from field data at Otis MMR, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. 27- Mavko, G., (1998). The rock physics handbook: tools for seismic analysis in porous media. 28 - Carmichael, Robert S., (1989), Practical handbook of physical properties of rocks and minerals.