Modeling and Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) In Heading and Depth Attitude via PPD Controller with State Feedback


PhD candidate, Semnan University


This paper focuses on design of AUV control system to control depth and pitch. Complexity and highly coupled dynamics, time-variance, and difficulty in hydrodynamic modeling and simulation, complicates the AUV modeling process and the design of proper and acceptable controller. A PD (Proportional- Derivative) controller, control the vehicle pitch and an outer P loop controller with state feedback will control the depth. The kinematic and dynamic equations will be extracted using various conditions such as the relative speed along the axis X (u), the speed along the axis Z (w), Pitch rate, forward position relative to the ground (x), depth (z), and the Pitch angle (Ɵ). Then we linearize the equations of motion of the AUV by choosing a suitable set of operating conditions. For effective control of the motion of AUVs, we need to design controllers based on the AUV’s dynamic model. Through the control of propeller and fin’s deflection, we can achieve the control system of AUVs. The simulation results indicate that developed control system is stable, competent, and efficient enough to control the AUV in tracking the two channels of heading and depth with stabilized speed.


[1] Farrell JA, Pang S, Li W, Arrieta R (2004) Biologically inspired chemical plume tracing demonstrated on an autonomous underwater vehicle, Man, and Cybernetics Conference, September 2004, Hague, Netherlands [2] Yildiz O, Gokalp RB, Yilmaz AE (2009) A review on motion control of the Underwater Vehicles. In: Proceedings of electrical and electronics engineering, 2009. ELECO 2009, Bursa, 2009, pp 337–341 [3] UUV programs (2007) uuv.htm [4] Prestero T Verification of a six-degree-of-freedom simulation model for the REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle, MSc/ME Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2001 [5] Geisbert JS Hydrodynamic modeling for autonomous underwater vehicles using computational and semi-empirical methods. Verginia Polytechnis Institute and State University, 2007 [6] Yue C, Guo S, Li M ,ANSYS fluent-based modeling and hydrodynamic analysis for a spherical Underwater robot. In: Proceedings of 2012 IEEE international conference on mechatronics and automation, pp 1577–1581, 2012 [7] Guo S, Mao S, Shi L, Li M ,Design and kinematic analysis of an amphibious spherical robot. In: Proceedings of 2012 IEEE international conference on mechatronics and automation, pp 2214–2219, 2012 [8] Herman P ,Decoupled PD set-point controller for underwater vehicles. J Ocean Eng 36(6–7):529–534,2009 [9] Fossen, T.I . Guidance and Control of Ocean Vehicle . New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1994 [10] Wadoo S, Kachroo , Autonomous underwater vehicles: modeling, control design and simulation. CRC Press, edn 1,2010 [11] Buckham BJ, Podhorodeski RP, Soylu S , A chattering-free sliding-mode controller for underwater vehicles with fault tolerant infinity-norm thrust allocation. J Ocean Eng, 35(16):1647–1659, 2008 [12] Qi X, Adaptive coordinated tracking control of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles. Ocean Eng 91:84–90, 2014 [13] Zeinali M, Notash L, Adaptive sliding mode control with uncertainty estimator for robot manipulators. Mech Mach Theory 45(1):80–90, 2010 [14] Jun SW, Kim DW, Lee HJ, Design of T-S fuzzy-model based controller for depth control of autonomous underwater vehicles with parametric uncertainties. In: 2011 11th international conference on control, automation and systems, ICCAS 2011, Gyeonggi-do, Korea, Republic of, 2011, pp 1682–1684,2011 [15] Kumar N, Panwar V, Sukavanam N, Sharma SP, Borm JH, Neural network-based nonlinear tracking control of kinematically redundant robot manipulators. Math Compute Model 53(9–10):1889–1901, 2011 [16] Fossen, T.I . Marine Control System . 2002 [17] Xu B, Pandian SR, Sakagami N, Petry F, Neuro-fuzzy control of underwater vehicle-manipulator systems. J Franklin Institute, 349(3):1125–1138,2012 [18] Medagoda L, Williams SB, Model predictive control of an autonomous underwater vehicle in an in situ estimated water current profile. Oceans, Yeosu, pp 1–8, 2012 [19] Steenson LV, Phillips AB, Turnock SR, Furlong ME, Rogers E, Effect of measurement noise on the performance of a depth and pitch controller using the model predictive control method. Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV), 2012 IEEE/ OES, 1(8):24-27, 2012 [20] Mohan S, Kim J, Indirect adaptive control of an autonomous underwater vehicle-manipulator system for underwater manipulation tasks. Original Res Article Ocean Eng 54(1):233–243, 2012 [21] Cooney LA, Dynamic response and maneuvering strategies of a hybrid autonomous underwater vehicle in hovering. Thesis of Master of Science in ocean engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009 [22] Sgarioto D, Steady state trim and open loop stability analysis for the REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle. Defense Technology Agency, New Zealand Defense Force, DTA Report 254, 2008 [23] Yang C, Modular modeling and control for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Thesis of master of engineering department of mechanical engineering national university of Singapore, 2007 [24] Lin FC, Adaptive fuzzy logic-based velocity observer for servo motor drives. Mechatronics 13:229–241, 2003 [25] Subudhi B, Mukherjee K, Ghosh S, A static output feedback control design for path following of autonomous underwater vehicle in vertical plane. Ocean Eng 63:72–76, 2013 [26] A. Annamalai, A. Motwani, S.K. Sharma, R. Sutton,P. Culverhouse and C. Yang, A Robust Navigation Technique for Integration in the Guidance and Control of an Uninhabited Surface Vehicle, THE JOURNAL OF NAVIGATION, 68, 750–768, 2015 [27] Bong SeokPark, Adaptive formation control of under actuated autonomous underwater vehicles, Elsevier, Ocean Engineering96, 2015 [28] Thor I. Fossen, and Anastasios M. Lekkas, Direct and indirect adaptive integral line-of-sight path-following controllers for marine craft exposed to ocean currents, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADAPTIVE CONTROL AND SIGNAL PROCESSING, 2015 [29] M. Kim, Hangil Joe and Son-Ceol Yu, Dual-loop robust controller design for autonomous underwater vehicle under unknown environmental disturbances, ELECTRONICS LETTERS, Vol. 52, No. 5, pp. 350–352, 2016