Estimation of Bed Topography near the Cylindrical Pile under Breaking Waves by Close Range Photogrammetry

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Hydraulic Structures, MS, PHD Student of Hydraulic Structures at Sahand University of Technology

2 Sahand University of Technology


Waves propagating to the shore can experience breaking in the near-shore zone which can cause sediment transport due to the large vortices and turbulence generated by broken waves. The pattern of sediment transport can be affected by the presence of slender cylindrical members forming the major components of many coastal and offshore structures. In this paper an experimental investigation was performed to measure the bed morphology due to the breaking wave impact on a slender vertical cylinder. Exact and rapid measurement of bed topography is very important in experimental hydraulics as it helps understanding of these complex processes and measured bed mapping. This can substantially aid in the design of particular projects. This paper gives a brief description of the close-range photogrammetry method that is currently available for bed mapping in hydraulic modeling. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and 3D maps are created; thus 3D bed figures and scouring patterns are determined.


Main Subjects

[1] Y.-M. Chiew and B. W. Melville, "Local scour around bridge piers," Journal of hydraulic research, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 15-26, 1987.
[2] B. Melville and S. Coleman, "Bridge scour Water Resources Publications," LLC, Colorado, USA, 2000.
[3]B. M. Sumer, J. Fredsøe, and N. Christiansen, "Scour around vertical pile in waves", Journal of waterway, port, coastal, and ocean engineering, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 15-31, 1992
[4] B. W. Melville, "Pier and abutment scour: integrated approach," Journal of hydraulic Engineering, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 125-136, 1997.
[5] B. M. Sumer, The mechanics of scour in the marine environment. World Scientific, 2002.
[6] B. M. Sumer, R. J. Whitehouse, and A. Tørum, "Scour around coastal structures: a summary of recent research," Coastal Engineering, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 153-190, 2001.
[7] D. M. Sheppard, "Scour at complex piers," 2003.
[8] S. E. Coleman, "Clearwater local scour at complex piers," Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, vol. 131, no. 4, pp. 330-334, 2005.
[9]I. H. Elsebaie, "An experimental study of local scour around circular bridge pier in sand soil," International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering IJCEE-IJENS, vol. 13, no. 01, pp. 23-28, 2013.     
[10]D. Amini Baghbadorani, A.-A. Beheshti, and B. Ataie-Ashtiani, "Scour hole depth prediction around pile groups: review, comparison of existing methods, and proposition of a new approach," Natural Hazards, vol. 88, pp. 977-1001, 2017.
[11] B. Chen, and S. Li, "Experimental study of local scour around a vertical cylinder under wave only and combined wave-current conditions in a large scale flume", J. of Hydraulic Engineering, vol. 144. no. 9,  Sep. 2018
[12]A. H. Gazi, M. S. Afzal, and S. Dey, "Scour around piers under waves: Current status of research and its future prospect," Water, vol. 11, no. 11, p. 2212, 2019.
[13] B. Liang, S. Du, X. Pan, and L. Zhang, "Local scour for vertical piles in steady currents: review of mechanisms, influencing factors and empirical equations," Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 4, 2019.
[14]E. W. Bijker, and C. A. de Bruyn, "Erosion around the pile due to the current and breaking waves", Proc. 21st. Coastal Engineering Conf., vol. 2, ASCE, Reston, VA, 1368-1381.
[15]J. Carreiras, Ph. Larroudé, F. J. Seabra-Santos, and M. Mory, "Wave scour around piles", Proc. 27th. Coastal Engineering Conf., vol. 2, ASCE, Sydney, Australia, 1860-1870.
[16]A. W. Nielsen, B. M. Sumer, S. S. Ebbe, and J. Fredsøe, "Experimental study on the scour around a monopile in breaking waves," Journal of waterway, port, coastal, and ocean engineering, vol. 138, no. 6, pp. 501-506, 2012.
[17]T. Geisler, S. Breitenstein, A. Hammer, D. Mayr, and R. Klasinc, "Hydraulic modeling-Mapping of river bed," Water engineering and research in a learning society: Modern Developments and traditional concepts, pp. 24-29, 2003.
[18] K. Porter, R. Simons, and J. Harris, "Comparison of three techniques for scour depth measurement: photogrammetry, echosounder profiling and a calibrated pile," Coastal Engineering Proceedings, no. 34, pp. 64-64, 2014.
 [19]A. Bento, L. Couto, J. P. Pêgo, and T. Viseu, "Advanced characterization techniques of the scour hole around a bridge pier model," in E3S Web of Conferences, 2018.
[20] M. Fisher, M. N. Chowdhury, A. A. Khan, and S. Atamturktur, "An evaluation of scour measurement devices," Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, vol. 33, pp. 55-67, 2013.
[21] R. D. Raju, S. Nagarajan, M. Arockiasamy, and S. Castillo, "Feasibility of Using Green Laser in Monitoring Local Scour around Bridge Pier," Geomatics, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 355-369, 2022.
[22]A. Baik, "Introduction to Geomatics, GEOM 101,Week 8,Introduction to Photogrammetry."
[23] A. S. González-Vera, T. Wilting, A. Holten, G. van Heijst, and M. Duran-Matute, "High-resolution single-camera photogrammetry: incorporation of refraction at a fluid interface," Experiments in Fluids, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 1-19, 2020.
[24] J. Chandler, S. Lane, and P. Ashmore, "Measuring river-bed and flume morphology and parameterising bed roughness with a Kodak DCS460 digital camera," International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, vol. 33, no. B7/1; PART 7, pp. 250-257, 2000.
[25] S. Bertin and H. Friedrich, "Field application of close‐range digital photogrammetry (CRDP) for grain‐scale fluvial morphology studies," Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 1358-1369, 2016.
[26] J. Butler, S. Lane, and J. Chandler, "Assessment of DEM quality for characterizing surface roughness using close range digital photogrammetry," The Photogrammetric Record, vol. 16, no. 92, pp. 271-291, 1998.
[27] J. Butler, S. Lane, J. Chandler, and E. Porfiri, "Through‐water close range digital photogrammetry in flume and field environments," The Photogrammetric Record, vol. 17, no. 99, pp. 419-439, 2002.
[28] S. Bertin, H. Friedrich, P. Delmas, and E. Chan, "The use of close-range digital stereo-photogrammetry to measure gravel-bed topography in a laboratory environment," in Proceedings of the 35th IAHR congress, Chengdu, China, 2013.
[29] M. Lo Brutto and D. Termini, "Bed Topography Reconstruction in A Large Amplitude Meandering Flume: Application of Close Range Photogrammetry," in Advanced Materials Research, 2014, vol. 875: Trans Tech Publ, pp. 440-444.
[30] W. Li, S. Bertin, and H. Friedrich, "Combining Structure from Motion and close-range stereo photogrammetry to obtain scaled gravel bar DEMs," International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 39, no. 23, pp. 9269-9293, 2018.
[31] A. M. Bento, L. Couto, J. P. Pêgo, and T. Viseu, "Advanced characterization techniques of the scour hole around a bridge pier model," in E3S Web of Conferences, 2018, vol. 40: EDP Sciences, p. 05066.
[32] S. K. Karmacharya, N. Ruther, U. Shrestha, and M. B. Bishwakarma, "Evaluating the Structure from Motion Technique for Measurement of Bed Morphology in Physical Model Studies," Water, vol. 13, no. 7, p. 998, 2021.
[33]M. Shafaghat, and R. Dezvareh  "Predicting the sediment rate of Nakhilo Port using artificial intelligence," International Journal Of Coastal, Offshore And Environmental Engineering, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 41-49, 2020.