Application of Fuzzy Cognitive Map to Design the Causal Structure and Analyze the Factors Affecting Good Governance in the Ports and Maritime Organization


1 Ph.D. Student, Department of management, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Management and Economic, Science and research branch، Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran (Corresponding Author).

3 Associate Professor, Department of management, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.

4 Assistant professor, Department of management, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran.


Ports always play a strategic role in the development of a country's domestic and international trade, whether it is developing or developed. Ports as a base of maritime trade have changed a lot in recent decades, but in line with these changes, the Ports and Maritime Organization, as the main custodian of port and maritime policy, must adapt quickly, and this adaptation and the process of change in the next generations of ports of the country should lead to good governance in the management of port affairs. The evolutionary process of port governance shows that a single version cannot be used for governance reforms in all ports of the world, so in this study we try to examine the factors affecting good governance at the organizational level. The present study is a descriptive-survey research in terms of applied purpose and based on its nature and method. The statistical population in this study includes 22 experts of the Ports and Maritime Organization and the sampling method is random and purposeful due to the large number of experts. In this study, we first identify the factors affecting good governance by examining past literature studies in a hybrid manner and then  examine the components by surveying experts using the Fuzzy Delphi method and finally to show the causal reasoning between the components of the technique. Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping is used. Findings indicate that the components of  Equal Rights and Equity, Responsiveness & Accountability,  Defining Outcomes have the highest degree of centrality, respectively, and this indicates the importance of the above components compared to other components of good governance in the Ports and Maritime Organization.


  1. 1- Bavarsad, P., Jamshidi, S., & Jamshidi, Z., (2016), Application of Fuzzy Dematel Model to identify and analyze the relationship between factors affecting port privatization in Iran, Journal of Oceanography, Volume 7, Number 25, spring, pp.23-31 (In Persian). 2- Saraei, K., (2006), Membership of Iran at the WTO and its impact on Iranian port, 14th Conference of Marine Organs, Transit and Tariff Department, PMO, 9-11 may, Mahmoudabad (In Persian). 3- Salimi, J., Maknoon. R., (2018), Qualitative Meta-analysis of Scientific Researches Concerning the Issue of Governance in Iran, Journal of Public Administration (JPA), Volume 10, Issue 1, P.1-30 (In Persian). 4- Amiri, A., Rezghi Rostami A., Gelard, p., & Salehi Sadaghiani, j., (2020), A Model for Good Governance in the Defense Sector of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Need to Use It, Quarterly Resource management in Police, Volume:8, Issue: 30, p. 181 – 214 (In Persian). 5- Shankar Nag, N., (2018), Government, Governance and Good Governance, Indian Journal of Public Administration, Dayal Singh Evening College, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India,64(1), p.122–130. 6- Ahluwalia, P., & Miller, T., (2020), The continuing importance of good governance, Social Identities, Social Identities, Journal for the Study of Race, Nation and Culture, Volume 26, Issue 1, 26(1), p.1-2. 7- González, L. F., Sánchez, R. J., & Garcia, A., (2016), The adaptation process in port governance: the case of the Latin countries in South America and Europe. Journal of Shipping and Trade, 1(14), p.1-20. 8- Keping, Y., (2018), Governance and Good Governance: A New Framework for Political Analysis, Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, volume 11, p.1-8. 9- Danuta, G.D., Zbucki, Ł., Agnieszka, K., (2020), Good governance in strategic planning of local development in rural and urban-rural gminas of the eastern peripheral voivodeships of Poland, Bulletin of Geography, Socio-Economic Series, No.49.P.101-112. 10- Mira, R., & Hammadache, A., (2018), Good Governance and Economic Growth: A Contribution to the Institutional Debate about State Failure in Middle East and North Africa, Université Paris 13, CEPN Laboratory. France; IFC, Renmin University (China), p.107-120. 11- Baha, H. (2016). Good Governance and Human Development: The case of Afghanistan, Submitted in fulfillment of the partial requirements for the degree: Master of Public Policy and Good Governance, Public Economics, Law and Politics, Address: 29549 BadBevensen, Rathaus Straße 9, Thesis. 12- Wani H. A., Suwirta, A. (2015). Changing Dynamics of Good Governance in Africa. International Journal for Educational Studies, 7(2) February, by Minda Masagi Press Bandung and UMP Purwokerto, Indonesia ISSN 1979-7877, p.189-202. Website: 13- Poniatowicz, M., Dziemianowicz, R., Kargol-Wasiluk, A., (2020), Good Governance and Institutional Quality of Public Sector: Theoretical and Empirical Implications, European Research Studies Journal XXIII, Issue 2, p.529-556. 14- Zhang, Q., Zheng, S., Geerlings, H., El Makhloufi, A., (2019), Port governance revisited How to govern and for what purpose? Journal of Transport Policy, Volume77, May, p.46–57. 15- Debrie, J., (2011), Different tiers of government in port governance: some general remarks on the institutional geography of ports in Europe and Canada, 12th World Conference on Transport Research, Jul 2010, Lisbonne, Portugal. p.1-16. 16- Mokone, T., (2016), The impact of governance structure on the port performance: a case of Durban Port, World Maritime University Dissertations,533, World Maritime University, Malmo, Sweden, p.1-69. 17- Zhang, Q., Geerlings, H., El Makhloufi, A., Chen, S., (2018), who governs and what is governed in port governance: A review study. Journal of Transport Policy,Volume 64, May, p.51–60. 18- Dowleh, f., Sayfollahi, S., Zanjani, H., (2019), Study the Context and Barriers to the Formation of Good Governance in Contemporary Iran, Quarterly professional Journal of social sciences, Volume 13, Issue 2, Serial Number 45,spring, p.123-154 (In Persian). 19- Graham, J., Amos, B., & Tim, P., (2003), Principles for Good Governance in the 21 Century, The Institute On Governance (IOG), Policy Brief No. 15, Institute on Governance, Ottawa, Canada. Retrieved from: 20- Emami, M., & shakeri, H., (2016), Good governance and The constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Journal of Comparative Law Biquarterly, Volume 1, Issue 2, summer and autumn, p. 25-57 (In Persian). 21- Arab yarmohammadi, J., & Esmaeili Khoshmardan, A., (2019), Indicators of good governance and assessment of the situation in Iran, Scientific Supervisor: Yekta Ashrafi, Economic Affairs Research Institute, report identifier: 9901020083, P.1-38 (In Persian). 22- Araei, V., Ghasemi, A., & Moeininfar, Y. (2018).Policy Recommendations about Barriers of Good Governance in Public Affairs (Case Study: Governorate and Municipality of Minoodasht), Journal Strategic Studies of public policy, Volume, winter, p.113-133 (In Persian). 23- Zarghani, S. H., Ahmadi, E., (2019), Good Governance in Local States: Decentralization Approach, Journal State Studies quarterly, Volume 5, Issue 19, Autumn, pp.107-138 (In Persian). 24- Heshmatzadeh, M.B., Haji Yousefi, A.M., & Talebi, M.A.(2017), Investigation of Obstacles to realization of Good Governance in Iranian Political Culture, Journal of "Contemporary Political Investigations", Volume 8, Issue 23 - Serial Number 23,Summer, pp.1-24 (In Persian). 25- Jindal, N., (2014), Good Governance: Needs and Challenges, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 5, Issue 5, May, Jaypee University of Information Technology, p.113-116. 26- Yar Ahmadi, M., Almasifard, M.R., (2017), Investigating the good governance in public organizations (case: Kermanshah province), 1st International Conference on Economic Planning, Sustainable and Balanced Regional Development; Approaches and Applications, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, University of Kurdistan (In Persian). 27- Moghimi, S.M., & Alaei Ardakani, A. (2011). Indicators to Measuring good governance and its role promoting e-government. Journal of Information Technology Management (JITM), Volume 3, Issue 8 - Serial Number 8, pp.171-188 (In Persian). 28- Hamzei, M., Baradaran, M.M., & Hatefi, F., (2013), Good governance in Mashhad Municipality, 5th Urban Planning and Management Conference, 24 & 25 April, Mashhad. (In Persian). 29- Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., & Mastruzzi, M. (2010), The Worldwide Governance Indicators Methodology and Analytical Issues, The World Bank Development Research Group Macroeconomics and Growth Team, Policy Research Working Paper, p.1-31. 30- Sahraie, A., & Mahmoodinia, A., (2018)., Good governance: The Framework for Analysis of Hashemi's political Economy. Journal of Strategic Studies of public policy, Volume 8, Issue 28,Autumn,P.207-228 (In Persian). 31- Monios, J., (2016), Port Governance in the UK: Planning without policy. Transport Research Institute, Edinburgh Napier University Merchiston Campus, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 22, p.78-88. 32- Wilmsmeier, G., & Sanchez R.J., (2017), Evolution of national port governance and interport competition in Chile, Research in Transportation Business & Management, 22, p. 171–183. 33- Felinia A., (2020), Designing and explaining the effective model of organizational image processing in the tourism industry of Iran, Thesis to earn a Master of Science Degree, School of Management, Azad University of Chalous Branch (In Persian). 34- Naghade, F., (2013), Fuzzy logic applications in machine learning, In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Payam Noor University of Isfahan-kashan (In Persian). 35- Golshani, A., & Ghaedi, M., (2014), Fuzzy Method in Research: A Bridge between Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods, journal of Psychological methods and models ,Volume 4, Issue 14, Serial Number 14, winter, p. 45-65 (In Persian). 36- Farnaz Roozban, A., Farhangi, A.A., hosein Damghanian, H., & Rastegar, A., (2019), Presenting and explaining organizational communication management model in the context of social networks, quarterly of Cultural Studies and Communication, Volume 15, Issue 54, spring, p.103-126 (In Persian). 37- Rahmani, A., Vaziri Nezhad, R, Ahmadi Nia, H., & Rezaeian, M., (2020). Methodological Principles and Applications of the Delphi Method: A Narrative Review, JRUMS, 19 (5), p.515-538 (In Persian). 38- Gol Verdi, M., Zareie Matin, H., & Jandaghi, G.R., (2016), Identification of Factors Affecting Succession Management Behavior in Managers: Qualitative Approach, Journal of Research in Human Resources Management, Volume 8, Issue 2 - Serial Number 24, summer, p.183-208 (In Persian). 39- WGIs (The Worldwide Governance Indicators)., (2019), Report on six broad dimensions of governance for over 200 countries and territories over the period 1996-2019, Retrieved from: 40 - AGR (The Africa Governance Report)., (2019), Promoting African :union: Shared Values, Prepared by The African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) In Collaboration with the African Governance Architecture (AGA), January. 41- WBI (World Bank Institute)., (2012), Governance data web-interactive inventory of datasets and empirical tools, Washington, dc. Retrieved from: 42- UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)., (2011), Towards Human Resilience: Sustaining MDG Progress in an Age of Economic Uncertainty, pp.268-278. Retrieved from: 43- UNESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific). (2009).What Is Good Governance?. 1-3, Mr.Yap Kioe Sheng Chief, Poverty Reduction Section UNESCAP, UN Building, Rajdamnern Nok Ave. Bangkok 10200, Thailand. 44- UN-HABITAT (The United Nations Human Settlements Program)., (2006), the urban governance index: a tool of the quality of urban governance, Beirut. 45- Elahi, K. Q., (2005), Economic Inequality and Paretian Welfare Economics: Some Insinuating Questions, BRAC University Dhaka, Bangladesh, FSSE 35, Forum for Social Economics, Volume 35, Issue 1, p.19–36. 46- CIPFA & OPM (The Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy and Office for Public Management)., (2004), The Good Governance Standard for Public Services. The Independent Commission on Good Governance in Public Services. London. P.1-38. 47- EC (Commission of the European Communities). (2001), European Governance, A White Paper, Brussels, p.8-10. 48- OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). (2000). Directorate for Public Governance and Territorial Development. Principal Elements of Good Governance. Retrieved from: 49- AsDB (The Asian Development Bank)., (1995), Governance: Sound Economic Management. August, pp.3, 4, 8. 50- IIAG (The Ibrahim Index of African Governance of Mo Ibrahim Foundation)., (2019), AGENDAS 2063 & 2030, IS AFRICA ON TRACK? Index Report. 51- Juiz, C., Guerrero, C., & Lera, I., (2014), Implementing Good Governance Principles for the Public Sector in Information Technology Governance Frameworks, Open Journal of Accounting, 3, pp.9-27, published Online January, Retrieved from: ( 52- AfDB (The African Development Bank)., (2008), Governance Strategic Directions and Action Plan Gap 2008-012, April, p.15. 53- Huther, J., & Shah, A., (2000), Anti-Corruption Policies and Programs: A Framework for Evaluation, Policy Reserch Working Papers, December, p.1-17.Available at SSRN: 54- Samadi Mirkolaei, Ho., Samadi Mirkolaei, Ha., Bastami M., (2017), The Application of Fuzzy Delphi Method and Fuzzy AHP in Verification and Ranking of Effective Indexes on Organizational Entrepreneurship, Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Spring-Summer, Volume6, Number 11, P. 61-74 (In Persian). 55- Mostafaee, KH., Azar, A., Moghbel Baarze, A., (2019), Identification and Analysis of Operational Risks: A Fuzzy Cognitive Map Approach, Journal of Asset Management and Financing, Volume 6, Issue 4, Serial Number 23, winter, p. 25-57 (In Persian). 56- Talebpoor, A.R., Ahmadi, S.,(2010), intelligent evaluation Intelligent fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM) , Journal of Management perspective, Volume 30, p.9-28 (In Persian). 57- Nikshapoori, M., Abbasnejad, T., Ahmadi Kahnali, R., (2019), Analysis of Causal Relationships between Green Productivity Indicators with Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping Approach, Journal of Industrial Management Perspective , Volume 8, Issue 4, Winter, Serial Number 32,Winter, P.97-119 (In Persian). 58- Jafari Eskandari, M., Farhang, M., (2016), Designing fuzzy cognitive map model of factors affecting cost-time-quality in oil and gas projects Case study: Refinery of 15 companies of South Pars Gas Complex, scientific Journal of oil and gas exploration & Production, Volume 1394, Issue 125, July, p.30-37 (In Persian). 59- Ahmadnezhad, A., Sangari, M.S. Bozorgi. A.A., (2018), Modeling Key Readiness Factors of Hospitals for E-procurement System Using Fuzzy Cognitive Map (Case Study: A Specialty Hospital in Tehran). Journal of payavard salamat, 11 (6), p.660-674 (In Persian).